Ureters, Bladder, and Urethra

Urinary Passage (made of the ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra) are made of the following layers:

Ureters are made of thick muscular walls. The upper two thirds contain inner longitudinal and outer circular. In the lower third there is an additional outer longitudinal layer added. Peristaltic contraction of the smooth muscles squeeze the urine toward the urinary bladder.

Urinary Bladder is a muscular-walled sac. The three layers of smooth muscles of the wall are not very distinct. The mucosa is folded in an empty bladder. It is lined with transitional epithelium. The lamina propria contains a higher proportion of collagen and elastic fibers.

Male Urethra is the terminal part of urinary and genital systems. There are three distinct segments:

To insert urethral catheter in males, you should be familiar with the following: the entire urethra is about 20 cm, it is curved, and its lining has many small diverticula (noticeable when a catheter of insufficient caliber is used).

Female urethra is 3-4cm long. The mucosa has longitudinal foles. The lining is transitional, which changes to stratified squamous epithelium at its end.